Featured image: A royal visit to the fleet by Willem Van de Velde (1672) now at Royal Maritime Museum, Greenwich (in Davies 2008, 229).
Charles is forced to abandon all attempts to impose religious changes in Scotland and, in return, the Scots withdraw from Northern England. Parliament is then divided and, in November, opposition to the King is led by John Pym, who demands that the King hand over control of the militia. Many began to fear that he was going too far. Meanwhile, the country is becoming dangerously divided with Parliament over the subject of religion.
Queen Mary dies. King William III continues to rule alone until his death in 1702, when he is succeeded by Mary’s younger sister, Anne.
The Bill of Rights is passed, stating that no Catholic could become King or Queen, that a King could not marry a Catholic, and that the King could not suspend laws or levy loans or taxes without Parliament’s consent. By signing the bill, William and Mary signaled the end of several centuries of tension and conflict between the crown and Parliament.
James has a son in June, which causes concern about a Catholic heir. Seven powerful nobles invite the Dutchman William of Orange, husband of James’s Protestant daughter Mary, to come to England with an army, promising to support him. William lands in Devon in November and, in December, James II flees to France. Parliament proclaims that the throne is vacant and declares William and Mary as joint monarchs. The events become known as the Glorious Revolution.
Charles II dies, having ruled without Parliament throughout the last four years of his reign. Despite the wars and religious conflicts, the English economy had boomed during his reign, with industries such as coal and iron expanding rapidly. He is succeeded by his brother, James II, who promptly alienates people by appointing Catholics to powerful and important positions.
Another parliament passes the act of Habeas Corpus, forbidding imprisonment without trial. It also plans to exclude James, which causes Charles, once again, to dissolve it.
Charles dissolves Parliament when it proposes to exclude James from the succession.
Many innocent Catholics are convicted of treason and executed following the false claims by Titus Oates and Israel Tonge that a Popish plot exists to assassinate Charles and replace him with his openly Catholic brother, James. Charles has no legitimate heir, thus, James is next in line for the throne.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War finishes following four strategic Dutch victories causing the Anglo-French fleet’s failure to invade. The English Parliament forces Charles to make peace.
England joins France to fight another war with the Dutch.