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1688

James has a son in June, which causes concern about a Catholic heir. Seven powerful nobles invite the Dutchman William of Orange, husband of James’s Protestant daughter Mary, to come to England with an army, promising to support him. William lands in Devon in November and, in December, James II flees to France. Parliament proclaims that the throne is vacant and declares William and Mary as joint monarchs. The events become known as the Glorious Revolution.